In this study, villages in northwest China were randomized for all pregnant women to take either daily folic acid (control), iron with folic acid (IFA), or multiple micronutrient supplements (MMS) with a recommended allowance of 15 vitamins and minerals. Birth weight was 42 g higher in the MMS group compared with the folic acid group. IFA was associated with a significantly reduced risk of early preterm delivery. There was a significant increase in haemoglobin concentration in both IFA and MMS groups compared with folic acid alone. There were no significant differences for perinatal mortality, but IFA was associated with a significantly reduced early neonatal mortality by 54%.